Name: Mahmoud Khaled al-Zahhar, "Abu Khaled".
Office: Member of Hamas Political Bureau.
Birth and Childhood:
Mahmoud al-Zahhar was born in 1945 in Zaytoun neighborhood in the east of Gaza. Being for a Palestinian father and an Egyptian mother, al-Zahar lived his childhood in the Egyptian city of Ismailia.
- Mahmoud K. al-Zahar had primary and secondary education in Gaza.
- He got a bachelor degree in medicine from Ein Shams university in Cairo in 1971.
- Master degree in surgery in 1977.
Marital Status: Married and has seven children, two of them are martyrs.
- Since he had graduated, Mahmoud al-Zahhar worked as a physician in hospitals of Gaza and Khan Younis till being dismissed by Israeli occupation forces for his political stands.
- He had been the chairman of the Medical Association in the Gaza Strip from 1981 to 1985.
- Served as chairman of the administration council of Noor Centre for Studies and Research in the Gaza strip.
- Worked as the chairman of the Nursing department as well as a lecturer at the Islamic University in Gaza.
- He established many Palestinian institutions, including: Zaytoun Sports Club, medical charity dispensary of Qarara, the Federation of Trade Unions, as well as the Islamic and the professional blocs, the Arab Medical Association in the Gaza Strip, Alhayat medical journal, the College of Nursing in the Islamic University, the medical services in the Islamic university, the Media Committee following the mass deportation to marj al-Zohour, the Association of Artists, the Association of Palestinians authors and writers, Asalah Medical Association, and Palestine International and Cultural Center.
- Six months post Hamas establishment, IOF sentenced al-Zahhar to six months in prison in 1988.
- IOF deported al-Zahhar to al-Zohour meadow in 1992 with many of Hamas and Palestinian cadres. (See The Mass Deportation of 1992)
- In 1996, al-Zahhar was imprisoned for several months in the jails of the Palestinian Authority "P.A.", where he was severely tortured and had his four ribs broken, and moved to the hospital in critical condition.
- IOF tried to assassinate al-Zahhar on Wednesday, 10 September 2003, as Israeli F-16 warplanes bombed his home. He was lightly injured, and his eldest son Khaled and his guard were martyred, and his wife was injured where the home was entirely destroyed.
- Mahmoud al-Zahhar took over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the tenth Palestinian government formed by Hamas after the movement won the parliamentary elections in 2006.
- On 15 January 2008, al-Zahhar's son Hossam, a 22-year-old Qassam member, and 18 other people were martyred when an Israeli raid targeted them in eastern Gaza.
- Al-Zahar contributed to the Arab library, authoring several intellectual, political and literary books, including "The Problem of Contemporary Society.. Quranic Study", "No Place Under the Sun" in response to the book "A Place in the Sun" by Benjamin Netanyahu, "The Islamic Political Discourse", "Smoking in the Gaza Strip.. Scourges and Tragedies", "Assets of Media Confrontation" and "Universal Truth of Civilizations".
- He also authorized a number of novels, including "On the Pavement", "In the Depths of the Rock", "Black and White" and "Unextinguished Candle".